Lanxi Radish Cultivation Technology

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Lanxi radish is the collective name for the local varieties of radish in Lanxi City. There are two main types of radish, one is slats and leaves, and the Other is florets. Both have similar growth periods, yields and quality are similar, cultivation techniques are the same, and the origin is all in Lanxi City, Xiangxi Town, Chendian Village and the adjacent Yunli Sub-district Office Shili Ting Village. The former is commonly referred to as "buzz tongue" and "leaf loquat". The city's "Lanxi beef tongue" is the main crop, which accounts for more than 90% of production surveys. Lanxi radish is mainly used for pickling salted radish. The radish pickled by marinated has been favored by consumers because of its unique size, medium color, crisp color, and delicious taste. It has become a popular commodity in the market. Since 2001, we have carried out the research, promotion and application of Lanxi radish high-yielding supporting technologies, carried out a series of tests and demonstrations, and promoted the characteristics of Lanxi Xiaolu, further improved the high-yielding supporting technologies, and strengthened Training and publicity have improved the technology in place, which has improved the output and benefits. 1 Development and Benefits of Lanxi Carrots Through research, the characteristics of Lanxi Radish were basically clarified, which provided a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of Lanxi Radish, improved the high-yielding supporting technologies, improved the production level, increased the scientific and technological content, and yield. Steadily improved; initially established the breeding system of Lanxi radish seeds, started the purification and rejuvenation of Lanxi radish, ensured the sustainable development and utilization of local varietals of Lanxi radish, and strengthened the technical publicity training to carry out post-natal service work. , The introduction of processing enterprises, and to assist processing companies to do a good job of seed supply, base construction, technical guidance, etc., to do a good job in planting big farmers, planting bases and processing companies, and promote the industrialization of Lanxi radish. In the past three years, the city’s area of ​​application has reached 1,833 hm2, of which about 100 hm2 was planted in 2001, with an average yield of 1086 kg/667 m2 and an output value of 1330.15 yuan/667 m2. In 2002, the area sown was expanded to about 400 hm2, with an average output of 1241 kg/667 m2. 2731.66 yuan/667m2; The sown area in 2003 reached 1333 hm2 with an average yield of 1298kg/667m2 and an average production value of 1,185.11 yuan/667m2. In 2001, 2002 and 2003, the output increased by 1629, 7446, 25960t respectively, and the total output increased by 35035t in three years; The output value was 199.52 million yuan, 1639 million yuan and 23.7022 million yuan. In the three years, the output value increased by 42.0874 million yuan; the depreciation cost increased the income by 184.25, 1570.38, and 1999.72 million yuan respectively, and the total revenue increased by 37,543,500 yuan in three years. The development of Lanxi radish has achieved good economic and social benefits, achieved agricultural efficiency, increased farmers' income, and promoted the development of the local economy. 2 Characteristics of the characteristics of Lanxi radish 2.1 Biological characteristics The board species of Lanxi radish is commonly referred to as “buzz tongue” in the local area and is also referred to as “bamboo leaf”. The leaf bundles are upright, plate leaves are greenish and have fine hairs. The length of the leaves is 20-32cm and the width is 6-9cm. The size of the leaves has a significant relationship with the sowing date. The seeds are sown early and the leaves are large, whereas the leaves are smaller. "Huaye species" is similar to "bull tongue" except that the leaves are mosaics. Lanxi radish meat root into the soil shallow, no-tillage cultivation conditions in the paddy soil, about 2/3 of the root of the meat exposed on the surface. The fleshy root is white, long conical, the head is fine, the bottom is flat, and the root is fine; the fleshy root length is 4-8cm, and the bottom diameter is 2-3.5cm. Different cultivation conditions have a greater influence on the fleshy roots, and certain cultivation measures can be adopted. Adjust the shape of the fleshy root, single weight 25 ~ 50g, up to 200g or more in the rare seeding conditions. Lanxi radishes pass through the vernalization stage and bloom in March of the following year. The flowers are white, and some flowers gradually turn light purple. The whole flowering period is as long as 30 ~ 45d. Lanxi radish fruits are longan fruits. Each fruit has 3 to 6 seeds and it is not easy to crack when mature. The seeds are irregularly spherical, the seed coat is light yellow-brown, and the seed weight is about 13g. 2.2 Quality Lanxi Radish The skin root color is white and clean, the surface is smooth, the tissue is dense, the dry matter content is high, and the skin is thin. It is an ideal pickled processing variety. The quality has a certain relationship with the sowing date and the weather during the growing season. Sowing in August and early September, due to high temperatures and easy to encounter drought, is not conducive to the growth of fleshy roots, severe fibrosis, rough skin, poor quality Sowing too late, the growing period is also not conducive to the improvement of quality. According to recent production conditions, the quality of radish sown in mid-September to mid-October in our city is the best. 2.3 The growth period of Lanxi radish during the growth period is short. It is planted between mid-August and mid-September. It can be harvested from 28 to 35 days after sowing. It can be sown in mid-September and mid-September 10, and harvested after 40 days after sowing. It can be sown in late October. About 50d after sowing can be harvested. At the same time, the influence of the weather, especially the drought, has a very significant impact on the time from sowing to initial harvest, and it has obvious performance in production in 2003. Usually in the 3 to 4 leaves, the fleshy root enters into the cracking period. Under normal circumstances, the number of leaves at the harvesting stage is about 8 leaves. 2.4 Resistance and Adaptability Lanxi radish has good resistance to virus disease, downy mildew, and black rot. In recent years, there has been no occurrence of large areas of these diseases. The first two years of demonstration trials in different regions showed that Lanxi radishes have good adaptability and can be planted within the city. However, it is required that the soil quality is relatively loose and the soil is sandy loam. If it is too sandy, it will have poor moisture retention, poor radish root radish, and some deficiencies of the radish, and will lead to defects such as hollow and black hearts. The soil is too viscous. On the one hand, it will not use mechanical trenching and cover soil, and at the same time, The clump is too large, which affects the normal growth of the underground. The surface of the radish is uneven, which also affects the quality of the radish. Lanxi radishes are most suitable for river valley plains along the banks of the "Sanjiang" along the Lancang River, Lancangjiang River and Lanjiang River; followed by the banks of the "Xixi" small watersheds such as Meixi, Youquxi and Ganxi. In addition, some loose soil in the mountainous area is also suitable, can play its advantage of lower temperatures in early summer, the use of off-season cultivation, is conducive to the annual listing of Lanxi radish. According to tests conducted in Chenxiang Township in the mountainous area of ​​the city in the spring of 2003, planting was conducted before April 15th. Most of them were able to flower through the vernalization and bolting, and then they were planted and grew well. Therefore, the sowing time of Lanxi Xiaolu in spring in the mountainous area should be controlled after mid-April. 2.5 Yield Lanxi radish is suitable for high-density planting, generally the yield is 1000-1500kg/667m2, and the high-yield field can reach 2000kg/667m2. From the trial and production practices in recent years, combined with the yield survey, sowing from mid-September to mid-October will help achieve high yields. 3 Lanxi small radish high-yielding cultivation techniques 3.1 according to the previous crop mouth, staged sowing, extended listing period Lanxi radish has a certain high temperature characteristics. According to observations in the past two years, the earliest sowing date should be appropriate in mid-August and the latest sowing date is at the end of October. Premature sowing, on the one hand high temperature drought affect seedlings, on the other hand by the high temperature and drought, severe fibrosis, thick skin, poor quality, low yield; too late sowing, emergence, root growth and radish yield, quality will be due to low temperature It was seriously affected. According to the temperature requirements of radish growth in different periods and the production experience of previous years, combined with the meteorological data of our city, the average temperature of the city in August was 29.6°C, September was 25°C, and October was 19.2°C. We believe that the suitable sowing time for Lanxi radishes is from late August to late 10; the most suitable sowing period is from mid-September to mid-October. During this period, the Lanxi radishes sowed are of good quality and easier to obtain high yields. 3.2 Seed sowing methods and sorghum excluding conventional sowing methods, after the harvest of late rice in our city, the use of rice no-tillage sowing mainly. For early sowing, staggering the harvest period and extending the time to market, single-season late rice can be planted early in late April to early May, transplanted from late May to early June, harvested from late August to early September, and radishes sown after harvest. Usually fresh spring soybean - single-season rice - Lanxi radish planting pattern. Spring soybeans were selected from the early-maturing, high-yield, and high-quality spring soybean varieties 95-1 and Yindou 9701, and they used mulching and other techniques to promote early cultivation. The single-cropping rice combination was selected based on the requirements of post-production, such as Xiyou 46, Xieyou 63, Liangyoupeijiu and Yueyou 938 with high quality, high yield, and good resistance. 3.3 According to the sowing time, reasonable control of seeding volume Lanxi radish fleshy root individual, appropriate increase in seeding volume is conducive to increase production, the general use of the amount of 1.75 ~ 2.5kg/667m2, according to records in recent years analysis, early sowing due to Warm and good light conditions, large leaves, the amount of sowing should not be too large; and after sowing in October, due to temperature drop, the smaller amount of aboveground growth, can be appropriately increased the amount of sowing; seeding the most concentrated early October sowing, 667m2 use The amount of 2.25 ~ 2.5kg is appropriate. 3.4 Scientific and rational fertilization Generally, 15~20 kg/667m2 imported ternary compound fertilizer is used as basal fertilizer; in the late stage of growth, each harvest is harvested 2-3 times, and 2 kg/667m2 urea is used for spreading or watering to promote weak seedlings. Growth, flesh root swelling. Since the root system of the variety is shallow, it is appropriate to apply shallow cropping to the ploughing field block, and the field of no-tillage sowing of the rice plate directly spreads the compound fertilizer to the field plate at the time of sowing. Promote the application of organic fertilizer to plough fields, but try to avoid the application of organic fertilizer. The application of unripe organic fertilizer may cause brown spots on the surface of fleshy roots, which may affect the appearance quality of radish. Radish is more sensitive to trace element boron, and the lack of boron in radish is difficult to see from the growth of the aboveground parts. However, the root of the flesh is rough, the center of the root is brown or has a hollow shape and has a bitter taste, and the quality is deteriorated and the yield is reduced. Application of boron fertilizer can effectively prevent various symptoms caused by boron deficiency, generally 667m2 application of borax 0.5 ~ 1kg, for basal application, but also 667m2 with borax 100g, in the fleshy root expansion phase of spraying. 3.5 To improve the quality of sowing, to ensure that the seedlings and seedlings are erected for the Lanxi radish leaves to be suitable for close planting, and sowing methods are more suitable for sowing. For conventionally planted plots, after the ploughing and soil preparation, it is required that the flat soil should be fine and suitable for suitable agricultural operations. Generally, the width of lotus root is 1.2 to 1.5 m. Since the individual roots of Lanxi radish are small, the roots of the radish are shallow and fertilize. It is advisable to use shallow facilities as much as possible. After the soil preparation, it can be applied directly to the surface of the lotus root and the earth can be covered after sowing. For no-tillage sowing of paddy rice in paddy fields, the basal fertilizer should be applied throughout the field before sowing, and then sowing, and mechanical trenching or artificial trenching should be performed before the sowing. The artificial trenching must ensure that the casing is fine and uniform. Covering about 3cm of straw after sowing the cover soil will improve the appearance quality of the fleshy root. Combined with recent observations, the length of the fleshy root depends on the length of the main root during the seedling stage. Covering the rice straw helps to promote the extension of the main root, thereby increasing the length of the fleshy root. 3.6 Strengthening field management Lanxi radish sowing time is mainly concentrated in September and October, and it is in the autumn drought period in our city, and it may be rainy in the later period. Therefore, the field management mainly performs drought protection, seedling maintenance, and drainage clearance work. For early sowing of plots, we must focus on the work of drought and seedling maintenance. For example, when the seeds are sown, the soil is too dry and wetting the soil before sowing. After sowing, it can be dredged and run over a long period of drought. Water should be dredged during the whole growth period. Irrigation water surface. After the month of October, we will focus on clearing the ditch and drain water to prevent and control the accumulation of water in the fields. Spraying paclobutrazol in the early stage of radish growth has a certain effect on promoting the enlargement of the fleshy root, early harvesting, and increasing the yield, especially in the case of a large seeding density, the effect is particularly obvious. During the spraying period, the period from the second leaf stage to the early stage of fleshy root enlargement, ie, "break belly" stage, is appropriate and the concentration is about 75 mg/kg. In the late growth period of radish, for example, due to fertilizer and water factors leading to leaf length, spraying paclobutrazol has inhibited growth and better yield increase. 3.7 Do a good job in the prevention and control of pests and weeds The principle of “prevention as the mainstay and comprehensive prevention and control” is adhered to, and various effective non-chemical measures should be taken to control the hazards in order to reduce the number of pesticides used and the amount of pesticides used. 3.7.1 weed control. One week prior to sowing, all fields were chemically weeded with glyphosate to kill old grass. Before sowing, seedlings were soaked with Cinnaise. Generally, 667m2 was used with 5 bags and evenly sprayed with 50kg of water. The field soil was moist. 3.7.2 Pest Control. The prevention and control of cabbage caterpillars, Spodoptera littoralis and aphids will be focused on. Prevention and control of underground pests should also be done for dryland cultivation. After the application of pesticides, if the effects of prevention and control are affected due to rainfall or other reasons, they shall be treated. Pollution-free pesticides should be used to prevent and treat pests and diseases, and no pesticides should be used in the first half of harvest. 3.7.3 Disease Prevention and Control. Lanxi radishes are less developed during the growth period. The main diseases are viral disease, downy mildew and black rot. Virus disease prevention and control mainly use high quality varieties, and at the same time do a good job of prevention and control of aphids. 3.8 Batch Harvesting Listed Lanxi Xiaodi has a short growing time from sowing to harvesting. The growth rate should be faster. According to the requirements of the processing enterprises, the radish should be collected in batches when it meets the requirements of the enterprise, generally weighing 20 to 50 g. It is advisable to avoid delays in harvesting due dates and large radishes affect sales prices. 3.9 About Continuous Cropping Lanxi radishes have a short growing period and are sown before September 10th. Basic harvesting can be completed in the middle and late October. In order to increase land use efficiency, it can be planted for another season. However, the quality of the radish, especially the appearance of the radish, is affected. This is mainly due to the fact that the residue of the radish field rots and comes into contact with the fleshy root. Therefore, as a radish, after harvesting the radish, it is necessary to clean the remaining stems and leaves as much as possible out of the field. 4 Promotion and Application Prospects of Lanxi Radishes Lanxi Radish is a local variety of the city and is very suitable for planting on the banks of “Sanjiang” in our city, with unique local characteristics. The production of Lanxi radish is mainly produced in the fall and winter seasons after the late rice is harvested. At present, farmers in the city except the planting of some rapeseed are mainly based on winter-free fields and have sufficient land resources. Lanxi radish has a long history of production. In recent years, through scientific and technological research, product development and other work, production and quality have greatly improved, laying a good foundation for industrial development. By the end of 2003, there were more than 20 Lanxi small radish processing companies in the city, providing a large area for the development of Lanxi radishes. Therefore, with the adjustment of agricultural structure and the development of beneficial agriculture in our city, Lanxi radish industry has a broader development prospect.

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