Rice cultivation techniques


First, dry disk-free technology

(a) Select the appropriate seed coating model. There are two types of "dry nurses". Drought throwing and throwing should use throwing type “dry nurses” to enable the seedlings to carry soil and achieve the purpose of diskless drought breeding. The dry seedling transplanting and direct seeding, and the selection of dry nursery type “dry nurses” can save costs. . Early, middle, and late rice were selected for the special early-, middle-, and late-season “dry nurses”.

(b), determine the amount. Each bag of dumpling type "dry nurse nanny" coated rice seeds 1kg. With the "dry nurse nanny" coated rice seedlings have a high rate of emergence, a high rate of larvae, a lot of tillers, need to reduce the amount of sowing. Daejeon ratio 1:12-15.

(c) dipping seeds. It is better to immerse the selected rice seeds in clean water until enough water is sucked. Low temperatures in spring, early rice should be immersed for about 24 hours; late rice can be soaked for 12 hours or so; middle rice soaking time is between dry and late rice, 8-10 hours. Soaking time is too short, the emergence is slower, the germination rate is lower. Soaking time is too long, prone to bad species.

(D), coating method. Remove the soaked rice seeds, rinse with water, and drain until the rice seeds can be coated without dripping. According to the ratio of 1kg of coated bags of "dry nurse nanny" in each bag, the seed coating agent is placed in a round bottom container, and then the soaked rice seeds are slowly added to the container for rolling coating and stirring is added. Until the seed coating agent is completely wrapped on the seed. After the seed dressing is dried, it can be sown.

(5) Choose the nursery site, apply the basic fertilizer, and make a good preparation for the car. For the boring bed for dry seedlings, it is not advisable to use soils with large amounts of sand or excessively viscous soil as breeding grounds. Instead, we should use a loam field (or muddy field) with near water sources, loose fertility, less weeds, and partial sand. The dry land is used as a seedbed, and the vegetable garden ripe soil is the best. Appropriate amounts of fertilized organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer are used as basic fertilizer. Generally, one mu of Datian is required to be equipped with 40-50m2 of hatchbacks. When the pears are lifted, they should be applied with enough decomposing farmhouse fertilizer. At the same time, 25% to 2.5kg of compound fertilizer should be applied and the soil should be fully mixed.耙 厢 flat surface can be.

(F), pouring enough water. The bottom water of the dry nursery seedbed should be poured fully so that the water content of the 0-10cm soil layer of the seedbed reaches saturation. When watering, be careful not to pour enough water at a time.

(seven), uniform sowing and cover species. The well-prepared seeds were sown in a timely manner. After sowing, a slight layer of 1-2cm thick fine soil was placed on the surface to quickly and neatly sow. After the early rice seedlings are planted, they must be covered with arch and film insulation. Middle rice should be covered with grass anti-burning seedlings after planting.

(8) Spraying dry herbicide special herbicides. After sowing, the cover soil will not show off seeds, and each seedbed will be sprayed with 10ml of waterlogging and dryness, and 6kg of water will be uniformly sprayed. After the temperature in the film exceeds 33°C, it is necessary to remove the film for ventilation to prevent burning of seedlings and phytotoxicity.

(9) Do a good job in seedbed management. Dry seedlings are faster than the water seedlings in the water seedlings, and special attention must be paid to seedbed management. After the cover film of the middle rice, it is necessary to pay attention to cover a thin layer of grass on the film. The emphases of the seedling stage are the heat preservation and moisturizing, and generally the film is not removed. The dripping of water the afternoon before dragging is conducive to dragging and picking roots with "hygroscopic mud ball" to facilitate throwing seedlings. However, the temperature in the film does not exceed 33°C. When it exceeds, it should be immediately ventilated and cooled. If the bed soil is dry, it should be filled with water. A leaf temperature control temperature and humidity, as long as the outside temperature of not less than 12 degrees, should open two cool. If the bed soil loses water, white water may be sprayed in an appropriate amount. After the two-leaf stage, it is necessary to ventilate the seedlings to control the water and prevent disease. In sunny days, the intra-membrane temperature should be controlled below 30°C. During the day, the two sides of the car should be opened to cool the sides of the car, and the ventilation should be used to control the disease. Membrane is covered in rainy days to prevent rain from reaching the seedbeds and ensure the effects of drought. The film was completely removed depending on the weather conditions before the time. Special attention should be paid during the 1.5-2.5 leaf period. The seedbed should be kept dry. Even if the bed soil cracks, as long as the leaves are not rolled, watering is not necessary. Seedlings in this period are prone to blight, bacterial wilt and physiological dead seedlings. That is, the use of "dry nurse nanny" to coat the seedlings will cause mild blight and bacterial wilt if the coating amount is not enough, the seedbed is over-fertilized and the temperature and humidity are not well controlled. In this case, it can be sprayed and treated with 2.5 g of “dunksong” per 1,000 m2 of bed to 1000 times liquid. Physiological dead seedlings can be adjusted to solve the wet temperature.

(10) Problems can be solved by taking comprehensive measures.

1. Select a fertile, loamy soil with high organic matter content (preferably a garden plot) as a seedbed.

2. When growing the seedbed, farm manure is added as base fertilizer.

3. In the first year of winter, select the dry nursery boring bed and plow till it becomes loose.

4, available spacer solution.

5. Drenched water one afternoon before dragging is conducive to dragging and picking roots with “hygroscopic mud ball” to facilitate throwing seedlings.

6. When the seedlings grow well, they should drain the water during the growth of the seedlings, must be watered when it encounters drought, and must not be flooded.

The method of drought and seedling dumping, the field management in Daejeon and the control of pests and diseases are the same as those for conventional plastic trays.

Second, no-tillage rice transplanting technology

Rice no-tillage production techniques refer to the use of herbicides to eliminate weeds and seedlings from seedlings that have not been plowed or ploughed after harvesting the previous crops. After the rice stubs or green manure crops are destroyed, the rice is flooded and fertilized. Field, after the water layer naturally drains or drains water, the seedlings are cast and transplanted into the rice cultivation techniques in Daejeon. This technology has the characteristics of labor saving, high productivity, and ease of production. It is an important technology for light cultivation of rice. The technical points are as follows:

(A), the choice of no-tillage rice fields. No-tillage paddy fields should be selected in paddy fields with sufficient water sources, convenient drainage and irrigation, flat land, deep plowing layer and strong water retention and fertility conservation. Deep mud fields, muddy fields, cold-dipping fields, and fields with sufficient water sources and convenient irrigation and drainage can all be used. Former crops can be rape, vegetables, green manure, rice and so on. Fields that are not suitable for no-tillage are sandy soils, leaky lands, and long-term waterlogged fields; fields that are abandoned in winter and spring; and heavy fields such as water peanuts and heavy weeds.

(b) Herbicide selection. At present, there are two types of efficacious herbicides that can effectively kill rice paddy fields and weeds in the paddy fields. One is a contact killing type, and the other is a traceless one. Another type of internal suction, such as Feidahong, Farmer Le 747, Roundup and other glyphosate herbicides. Contact killing herbicide can observe the weeding effect within a short time after spraying. The liquid spray is applied on the stems and leaves of rice piles and weeds for 1-2 days. The stems and leaves begin to wither, and the field is flooded with backwater for 15-20 days. The vast majority of weeds and rice piles have died to achieve the purpose of weeding and eliminating miscellaneous objects; the use of systemic herbicides has made it difficult to observe the effects of weeding in a short time, but the effect of eradication is more thorough, and liquid medicine is sprayed on the piles and grows. Lush weed stems and leaves, 3-7 days later, the leaves began to turn yellow, 15-20 days after spraying, weeds and leaves died, and finally the roots, stems and leaves all withered, to achieve the purpose of weeding and miscellaneous purposes. The use of contact-killing herbicides is generally promoted in the case of grazing.

(III) Treatment of green manure, rice piles and weeds before throwing

1. Early rice no-tillage production: If it is the winter free field after the late rice harvest, in the 15-20 days before the early rice planting, use about 150g of 88.8% Feida red or 150-200g farmer music 747 or 20% of grams without trace 200 per mu. - About 250kg of clear water is sprayed on the rice piles and weed stems and leaves with a sprayer, and irrigated with water for 3 to 5 days after spraying for 10 to 15 days. The depth of water is better to submerge the rice piles. Wait for the water layer to dry naturally or throw it away 1 day before throwing. If former is Ziyunying, the technical point for destroying Ziyunying should be solved. The main technical point for destroying dry crops is to choose no rain weather 10 to 15 days before the early rice throwing, and drain the water from the fields of Ziyunying. Use sterile herbicides (Feida Red 200g/mu or Roundup 300g/mu or Gram-free 300g/mu) with 50kg of water evenly sprayed on the milk vetch, and keep the field free of stagnant water, after 3-5 days Filled with water for simmering, and after 7-10 days to reach full rot it can be thrown. Dispose of the field before drying or allow it to dry naturally, applying 15 kg of ammonium bicarbonate per mu, 20 kg of phosphate fertilizer, and flatten the field surface.

2, Zhongdao (a season late rice) no-tillage production: the former is a rapeseed rape, rapeseed harvesting should be cut as low as possible, leaving no more than 15cm high. Per acre can be about 150g of 88.8% Feida red or 150-200g farmers Le 747 or 20% of grams without trace 200-250g against the water 30kg around the field uniform spray. 3 to 5 days after spraying, soaking field for 5 to 7 days. Wait for the water layer to dry naturally or throw it away 1 day before throwing.

3. Late rice no-tillage production: If the previous crop is early rice, the height of the retained rice pile should not exceed 15cm during early rice harvest. Otherwise, the water cannot submerge the rice piles and it is difficult to rot. As a result, the seedlings are resting on the rice piles. The technical points for no-tillage cultivation of late rice are as follows: Early rice is drained immediately after harvest, with 250-300ml per acre, plus 2kg of hydrogen carbonate or potassium chloride, and evenly sprayed with 30kg of water, sprayed evenly on the rice pile with a sprayer. On the stems and leaves of weeds, the spray was sprayed on the second day after the spraying, and 2-3 days after the spray was applied to immerse the field in deep water for 3 to 5 days. On the same day of harvest of the early rice or on the second day, 88.8% of Feidahong 150g or 250-300g of farmers农民 747 can be uniformly sprayed with 30kg of fresh water per acre, spraying 2~3 days of flooding and submerging rice piles to soak in the fields. -5 days. In the first 2-3 days before the seedlings, the Liaogu Valley seedlings grow back and dry water for the second time, and 200g of paraquat is sprayed with 30kg of clear water. On the second day after the application of paraquat, dry the fields and apply basal fertigation. If the season allows, the rice to be regenerated and the shattered grain seedlings can be used once after growing. Late rice no-tillage growth can be combined with straw returning, and 40 kg of compound fertilizer for each acre of rice is used. The order is to spray the herbicide first, then apply the base fertilizer, sprinkle the straw, and throw it.

(4) Notes: 1 Regardless of the herbicide used, the field must be water-free when spraying, herbicides must be treated with clear water, and should be applied on sunny days. Heavy rain should be sprayed within 4 hours after spraying. 2 Weeding time: Double-season rice should be used after the Chinese New Year to see Acacia before heading. Double-season rice should be applied on the day of harvest or the next day. 3 Rescue the grass before throwing it in order to facilitate the seedlings to contact the soil and take root.

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